Constitutions and Directory of the Marian Fathers

Constitutions AND Directory OF THE MARIAN FATHERS

Constitutions and Directory of the Congregation of Marian Fathers of the Immaculate Conception of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary

Constitutions and Directory of the Congregation of Marian Fathers of the Immaculate Conception of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary General Curia of the Marian Fathers Rome 2023

© 2023 General Curia of the Congregation of Marian Fathers of the Immaculate Conception of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary. Cover: The painting of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, was commissioned by the Marian Fathers and painted by Franciszek Smuglewicz (1745-1807) in 1782. The painting was placed in the main altar of the church of St. Vitus in Rome; At that time the church, together with adjacent monastery, belonged to the Marian Order and was the seat of the General Procurator’s Office. Color Insert: Coat of arms of the Congregation of Marian Fathers designed in 2009 by Tomasz Steifer (1955-2015), a member of the Polish Heraldic Society. The coat of arms was approved for official use in the entire Congregation by the decree of the Superior General of Nov. 3, 2009, No. 210/09. The General Chapter of 2017 placed its detailed description in §15 of the Constitutions. Imprimi potest Most Rev. Fr. Joseph G. Roesch, MIC Superior General of the Congregation of Marian Fathers Rome, June 29, 2023, No. 123/2023 Printing and binding by: PROMIC

Table of Contents Privileges Granted to the Congregation of Clerics of the Immaculate Conception of the B.V.M. issued by Pope Innocent XI on March 20, 1681 ................................ 31 Apostolic approval of the Congregation of Marian Clerics Regular Helping the [Souls of] Deceased and Pastors issued by the Apostolic Nuncio, Archbishop Francis Pignatelly on June 6, 1701............................................................... 34 Document of Aggregation issued by the Minister General of the Franciscan Order on September 21, 1699 ................... 34 Apostolic Breve issued by Pope Innocent XII on November 24, 1699 .......................................................... 37 Approval and Ratification of the Statutes of the Congregation of Marian Clerics Regular Bringing Help to the Deceased and Assisting Pastors in Their Ministry issued by Pope Innocent XIII on September 3, 1723......... 41 Apostolic Approval of Both the Institute and the Constitutions of the Marian Clerics Regular issued by Pope Pius VI on November 17, 1786........................................................... 44 Privileges Granted by Pope Pius VI to the Order of Marians on March 27, 1787......................................... 48 Decree of the Sacred Congregation for Religious Approving the Reformed Congregation of Marian Fathers and its New Constitutions on November 28, 1910 ....................... 52 Decree Confirming the Privilege of Exemption Granted to the Congregation of Marian Fathers issued by the Sacred Congregation for Religious on April 26, 1929 ................... 54 Decree Ratifying the Constitutions of the Congregation of Marian Fathers issued by the Sacred Congregation for Religious on January 27, 1930 ........................................... 55 Decree issued by the Sacred Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes on March 25, 1986 ........................... 56 Decree issued by the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life on May 31, 2005......... 58 Decree issued by the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life on March 21, 2011...... 59

Decree Approving the New Constitutions issued by the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life on September 8, 2017.............................. 60 Decree of the Dicastery for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life of June 6, 2023......................... 62 Letter of the Superior General Donald S. Petraitis, MIC from January 27, 1988................................................... 65 Letter of the Superior General Andrzej Pakuła, MIC from May 18, 2018........................................................ 67 Letter of the Superior General Joseph G. Roesch, MIC from June 29, 2023........................................................ 70 Abbreviations .................................................................. 72 Introduction: Evolution of the Marians’ Legislation ...... 75 Constitutions of the Congregation of Marian Fathers of the Immaculate Conception of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary Preamble—Invocatio Dei...................................................... 83 PART I PATRIMONY AND SPIRITUALITY OF THE CONGREGATION I. Nature, Purpose, Spirituality, and Character................... 83 1. Character and Place of the Congregation in the Church ............................................................ 83 2. Essence of the Charism .......................................... 84 3. Mission................................................................. 84 4. Consecrated for the Glory of the Most Holy Trinity... 84 5. Following of Christ ................................................ 84 6. Formed by the Holy Spirit ..................................... 85 7. With Mary Immaculately Conceived ...................... 85 8. Assistance to the Deceased and the Dying ......... 86 9. In the Service of the Church.................................... 86 10. Out of All Nations and to All People ...................... 86 11. Become All Things to All People ........................... 87 12. Spiritual Life and the Apostolate ............................ 87 13. Characteristics of a Marian .................................... 87 Constitutions 8

14. Motto of the Congregation...................................... 88 15. Coat of Arms of the Congregation........................... 88 II. Members ..................................................................... 88 16. Rights and Obligations........................................... 88 17. Attire of the Confreres . .......................................... 88 III. Patron Saints and Special Devotions (Devotiones Peculiares).................................................................. 89 18. Principal Patroness ................................................ 89 19. Other Patrons ........................................................ 89 20. Devotiones Peculiares (Special Devotions) ............ 90 PART II CONSECRATED LIFE I. Pursuit of Evangelical Perfection ............................. 91 21. Vocation to Holiness............................................ 91 22. Observance of the Evangelical Counsels............ 91 23. Consecration through Vows ................................ 91 24. Mary Immaculate—Model of Virtues ................ 92 25. Striving for Holiness .......................................... 92 26. Fight Against Sin ................................................ 92 27. Carry the Cross with Christ................................. 93 28. Perfecting Natural Talents .................................. 93 29. Cardinal Virtues .................................................. 93 30. Humility .............................................................. 94 31. Theological Virtues.............................................. 94 32. Love of Enemies ................................................. 94 33. Conformity to God’s Will .................................. 95 34. Fulfilling One’s Duties......................................... 95 35. Industrious Life .................................................. 95 36. Work and Prayer.................................................. 95 37. Union with God .................................................. 96 38. Holy Zeal ............................................................ 96 39. Fidelity to the Grace of Vocation........................ 97 II. Chastity .................................................................... 97 40. For the Sake of the Kingdom of Heaven............ 97 41. Value of Chastity ................................................ 98 Table of Contents 9

42. Necessary Condition ........................................... 98 43. Formation and Testing......................................... 98 III. Poverty....................................................................... 99 44. Evangelical Poverty ............................................ 99 45. Poor in Fact and in Spirit..................................... 99 46. Extent of the Vow................................................ 99 47. Ownership of Goods........................................... 100 48. Changing Cession, Disposition and Will............. 100 49. Renunciation of Patrimony ............................... 100 50. Acquiring Goods for the Congregation ............. 100 51. Common Witness to Poverty ........................... 101 52. Adornments of Poverty ..................................... 101 53. Solicitude of Superiors ..................................... 101 54. Handling of Money ........................................... 102 IV. Obedience ................................................................. 102 55. Scope of Obedience............................................ 102 56. Imitation of Christ .............................................. 102 57. Like the Handmaid of the Lord .......................... 102 58. In Service of the Church .................................... 103 59. Extent of the Vow .............................................. 103 60. Dependence on Superiors................................... 103 61. Humble, Active, and Responsible Obedience..... 103 62. Supernatural Obedience ................................... 104 63. Responsibility of Superiors ................................ 104 64. Manner of Governing the Community............... 104 65. Formation for Co-responsibility ....................... 104 V. Sources of the Spiritual Life..................................... 105 66. Cultivating the Spiritual Life.............................. 105 67. Reading and Meditating on Sacred Scripture..... 105 68. Sacred Liturgy ................................................... 105 69. Marian Devotion................................................. 106 70. Celebrating the Sacred Liturgy........................... 106 71. Receiving the Sacrament of Penance................. 106 72. Competence of the Major Superiors Regarding the Faculty to Hear Confessions......................... 107 73. Restriction Regarding Formation Houses........... 107 Constitutions 10

74. Appointment of Confessors ............................. 107 75. Confessor and Spiritual Director...................... 107 76. Sacraments of the Sick .................................... 108 VI. Life of Prayer and Piety ........................................... 108 77. Right Intention ................................................. 108 78. Liturgical Actions and Pious Exercises ........... 108 79. Daily Practices ...............................................109 80. Purpose of Pious Practices .............................. 109 81. Devotional Renewal of Vows........................... 110 82. Concern of Superiors........................................ 110 83. Preaching the Word of God to the Confreres... 110 84. Prayers for the Living ..................................... 110 85. Prayers for the Deceased.................................. 111 86. Prayer of the Superior ..................................... 111 VII. Penance and Mortifications ..................................... 111 87. Necessity of Penance........................................ 111 88. Purpose of Mortification................................... 111 89. External Mortifications..................................... 112 90. Internal Mortification....................................... 112 91. Overcoming Oneself ....................................... 112 92. Burden of Work ............................................... 112 93. Hardships of Life.............................................. 113 94. Temperance and Sobriety ................................ 113 PART III COMMON LIFE I. Common Life in General........................................ 114 95. One Body and One Spirit ................................ 114 96. Observance of Common Life .......................... 114 97. Lengthy Absence from the House .................. 114 II. Fraternal Charity and Care of the Sick ................... 115 98. Gift and Precept of Charity.............................. 115 99. One Heart ........................................................ 115 100. Special Care ..................................................... 115 101. Understanding and Tolerance .......................... 116 Table of Contents 11

102. Union Among the Houses, Provinces, and Vicariates........................................................... 116 103. Hospitality......................................................... 116 104. Facing a Vocational Crisis................................ 116 III. Guidelines for Safeguarding Discipline and Recollection.............................................................. 117 105. Observance of Discipline ................................ 117 106. Common Responsibility and Collaboration .... 117 107. Continuous Recollection................................... 117 108. Religious Silence ............................................. 118 109. Cloister.............................................................. 118 110. Relations with Non-members .......................... 118 111. Recreation ........................................................ 118 IV. Dealings with Human Society................................. 119 112. Natural and Spiritual Love............................... 119 113. Contacts with Family........................................ 119 114. Friends, Co-workers, and the Poor ................. 119 115. International Affairs and Politics .................... 120 116. Meriting the Esteem of People ........................ 120 117. Bringing the Peace of Christ ........................... 120 118. Practice of Social Virtues ................................ 120 PART IV APOSTOLATE I. Character and Elements of the Apostolate................ 122 119. Apostolic Nature of the Congregation.............. 122 120. Obligation ........................................................ 122 121. Goal of the Apostolate...................................... 122 122. Marian Element................................................ 123 123. Eschatological Element.................................... 123 124. Freedom and Obedience .................................. 123 125. Apostolate by Example .................................... 123 126. Suitable Means ................................................ 124 127. Action through Others...................................... 124 128. Marian Fathers’ Associations .......................... 124 129. Viri Aggregati (Aggregated Members) ............ 124 130. Industriousness ................................................ 125 Constitutions 12

131. Union with Clergy ........................................... 125 132. In the Spirit of Obedience................................ 125 II. Instruction and Education of Youth......................... 126 133. Importance and Forms of Education .............. 126 134. Well-Rounded Education.................................. 126 135. Catechetical Instruction .................................... 126 III. Use of Instruments of Communication ................... 127 136. Importance; Prudent and Cautious Use............ 127 137. Apostolate of the Press .................................... 127 138. Writing and the Arts ........................................ 127 139. Orthodoxy and Proclamation of the Faith ...... 128 IV. Exercise of Priestly Ministry.................................... 128 140. Duty of Evangelization ..................................... 128 141. Priestly Zeal ...................................................... 128 142. Permission of Superiors ....................................... 129 143. Staffing Parishes ................................................... 129 144. Administration of Parishes ................................ 129 145. Importance of the Parish ................................... 129 146. Removal from an Ecclesiastical Office in the Diocese .................................................. 129 V. Ecumenism and Inter-Religious Dialogue ............... 130 147. Desire for Unity................................................ 130 148. Inter-Religious Dialogue ................................. 130 149. In Union with the Church ............................... 130 VI. Missions.................................................................... 131 150. Missionary Spirit.............................................. 131 151. Alleviating the Lack of Clergy ....................... 131 152. Fostering Missionary Zeal................................ 131 153. Qualities of Missionaries.................................. 131 PART V FORMATION I. Principles of Formation............................................ 132 154. Purpose of Formation ...................................... 132 155. Christ—the Supreme Teacher........................... 132 Table of Contents 13

156. Mary Immaculate—Exemplar of the New Man.. 132 157. Liturgical Formation ........................................ 133 158. Full Maturity..................................................... 133 159. Spiritual Heritage ............................................. 133 160. Formation for the Apostolate .......................... 134 161. Qualified Educators.......................................... 134 162. Phases of Formation ........................................ 134 163. Mutual Solicitude ............................................ 135 II. Fostering Vocations ................................................. 135 164. Seeking Candidates ......................................... 135 165. Prayer and Example ........................................ 135 III. Admission to the Congregation................................ 136 166. Gradual Incorporation ..................................... 136 167. Right to Admit Candidates .............................. 136 168. Proper Selection of Candidates ....................... 136 169. General Rule .................................................... 137 170. Postulancy......................................................... 137 IV. Novitiate .................................................................. 138 171. Purpose of Novitiate ........................................ 138 172. Erecting, Transferring, and Suppressing a Novitiate......................................................... 138 173. Place of the Novitiate ...................................... 138 174. Exceptions to the Place of the Novitiate ......... 138 175. Duration of the Novitiate.................................. 139 176. Other Conditions for Validity of the Novitiate...... 139 177. Appointment of the Master and His Associate...... 139 178. Qualities of the Novice Master......................... 139 179. Authority of the Master ................................... 140 180. Efforts of the Novices....................................... 140 181. Obligations and Privileges ............................... 140 182. Fundamental Goals of the Novices ................. 140 183. Elements of the Spiritual Life ......................... 141 184. Program of the Novitiate ................................. 141 185. Preparation for the Apostolate.......................... 141 186. Novitiate and Communal Life ........................ 142 187. Leaving and Dismissal .................................... 142 188. Decision Concerning Suitability....................... 142 Constitutions 14

V. Religious Profession ................................................ 142 189. Concept of Profession ..................................... 142 190. Requirements for Validity of Profession ........ 143 191. External Form of Profession ........................... 143 192. Formula of Profession ..................................... 144 193. Duration of Temporary Profession ................. 144 194. Bond with the Congregation ........................... 144 195. Profession or Departure................................... 145 196. Anticipated Profession .................................... 145 197. Transfer from Another Congregation .............. 145 198. Possibility of Re-admission ............................ 145 199. Separation from the Congregation................... 146 200. Relation to Former Members........................... 146 VI. Priestly Formation ................................................... 146 201. Goal of Priestly Formation .............................. 146 202. Houses of Studies and Institutes....................... 146 203. Formators.......................................................... 147 204. Program of Studies .......................................... 147 205. Intermediate or Secondary School Studies....... 147 206. Philosophical Studies ....................................... 148 207. Theological Studies.......................................... 148 208. Preparation for the Apostolate ........................ 148 209. Spiritual Formation........................................... 148 210. Promotion to Orders ........................................ 149 211. Declaration of Candidate Before Sacred Orders... 149 212. Right to Confer Ministries and Dimissorial Letters.................................... 149 213. Document and Notification of Ordination........ 149 VII. Formation of Religious Brothers ............................. 149 214. Apostolate of Religious Brothers .................... 149 215. Goal of the Formation...................................... 150 VIII. Ongoing Formation ................................................ 150 216. Knowledge to Be Continuously Perfected ...... 150 217. Special Studies ................................................. 150 218. Spiritual Renewal ............................................. 151 219. Nurturing a Spiritual Culture.............................151 Table of Contents 15

PART VI STRUCTURE AND GOVERNMENT I. Relation with Ecclesiastical Authority .................... 152 220. Obedience and Devotion to the Holy Father ... 152 221. Report to Be Sent to the Apostolic See .......... 152 222. Profession of Faith .......................................... 152 223. Submission to the Bishop................................. 153 II. Structure of the Congregation................................... 153 224. Provinces........................................................... 153 225. Founding and Suppressing Provinces .............. 153 226. Founding and Suppressing Vice-Provinces ..... 154 227. Vicariate ........................................................... 154 228. Religious House ............................................... 154 229. House Subject to the Superior General .......... 154 230. Erecting a House ............................................. 154 231. Need for Erecting Houses ............................... 155 232. Required Conditions......................................... 155 233. Suppression of a House .................................. 155 III. Superiors .................................................................. 155 234. Power of Superiors and Chapters .................... 155 235. Supreme Power in the Congregation................ 155 236. Superiors of Provinces, Vicariates, and Houses ... 156 237. Chapters ........................................................... 156 238. Major Superiors ............................................... 156 239. Required Conditions for Election or Appointment ................................................ 156 240. Profession of Faith ........................................... 156 241. Term of Office ................................................. 157 242. Loss of Office .................................................. 157 243. Visitation .......................................................... 157 244. Frequency of Visitation .................................... 158 IV. Council and Councilors ........................................... 158 245. Council ............................................................. 158 246. Councilors......................................................... 158 247. Consent of the Council.................................... 158 248. Consultative Vote.............................................. 159 249. Duties of Councilors ........................................ 159 Constitutions 16

V. Secretaries and Archives .......................................... 159 250. Secretaries......................................................... 159 251. Archives ........................................................... 159 VI. Elections ................................................................... 160 252. Active and Passive Voice ................................. 160 253. Election Rules .................................................. 160 254. Ballot of an Ill Elector...................................... 160 255. Validity of Vote ................................................ 161 256. Defects to Be Avoided ..................................... 161 257. Voting Results................................................... 161 VII. General Chapter........................................................ 161 258. Purpose of the Chapter..................................... 161 259. Ordinary and Extraordinary Chapter............... 162 260. Members of the Chapter................................... 162 261. President of the Chapter .................................. 163 262. Reports on the State of the Congregation ....... 163 263. Matters to Be Treated ...................................... 163 264. Proposals of the Confreres .............................. 163 265. Way of Deciding Matters.................................. 163 266. Elections........................................................... 164 267. Election of the Superior General...................... 164 268. Other Elections ................................................ 164 269. Conclusion of the Chapter .............................. 164 VIII. Provincial Chapter.................................................... 165 270. Convocation...................................................... 165 271. Time for the Provincial Chapter ...................... 165 272. Chapter Members ............................................ 165 273. Report and Other Matters ................................ 165 IX. Local Chapter .......................................................... 166 274. Purpose and Procedure .................................... 166 X. Conventions.............................................................. 166 275. General Convention ........................................ 166 276. Provincial Convention ..................................... 166 277. Consultative Voice ........................................... 167 278. Local Convention ............................................ 167 Table of Contents 17

XI. General Government ............................................... 167 279. Power and Responsibility of the General ........ 167 280. Collegial Decisions Made by the General Council.......................................... 167 281. Matters to Be Decided with the Consent of the General Council .................. 168 282. Appointments ...................................................... 169 283. Incompatible Offices ........................................ 170 284. Love of the Congregation ................................ 170 285. Loss of Office .................................................. 170 XII. Provincial Government ........................................... 170 286. Elections........................................................... 170 287. Confirmation of Election.................................. 171 288. Election of Councilors...................................... 171 289. Administrative Appointments .......................... 171 290. Resignation of the Provincial Superior............ 171 291. Superior and Council........................................ 171 292. Matters to Be Decided with the Consent of the Provincial Council ............ 171 293. Matters to Be Decided with the Consultative Vote of the Provincial Council .................................... 172 294. Reports on the State of the Province ............... 173 XIII. Local Government ................................................... 173 295. Members of the Administration........................ 173 XIV. Treasurers and the Administration of Goods .......... 174 296. Juridical Faculty............................................... 174 297. Administration of Goods ................................. 174 298. Treasurers.......................................................... 174 299. Deposits and Foundations ............................... 174 300. Liquidating Debts............................................. 175 301. Prudence and Diligence.................................... 175 XV. Laws of the Congregation ....................................... 176 302. Reasons for Fidelity ......................................... 176 303. Obligation to Faithful Observance .................. 176 304. Dispensation from the Norms Contained in the Constitutions and Directory....................... 176 Constitutions 18

305. Power of Granting Dispensations .................... 176 306. Interpretation of By-Laws ............................... 177 307. Changes of Laws ............................................. 177 308. Provincial Statutes ........................................... 177 Epilogue .......................................................................... 179 Directory of the Congregation of Marian Fathers of the Immaculate Conception of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary PART I PATRIMONY AND SPIRITUALITY OF THE CONGREGATION I. Nature, Purpose, Spirituality, and Character............. 183 1. Ministries and Works ........................................... 183 2. Coat of Arms of the Congregation ...................... 183 II. Members .................................................................. 184 III. Patron Saints and Special Devotions (Devotiones Peculiares)................................................................. 184 3. Celebrating the Patrons of the Congregation ...... 184 4. Remembrance of the Death of the Lord ............. 184 5. Devotion to the Immaculate Conception of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary ............................ 184 6. Devotions for the Dead ........................................ 185 7. Some Marks of Identity ....................................... 185 8. Principles Regarding the Solemn Garb ............... 185 PART II CONSECRATED LIFE I. Pursuit of Evangelical Perfection ............................ 187 II. Chastity .................................................................... 187 9. Concern for Preserving Chastity ....................... 187 10. Helps in Preserving Chastity ............................. 187 11. Vigilance ............................................................ 188 Table of Contents 19

12. Chastity in Community....................................... 188 13. Obligations of Charity ....................................... 188 III. Poverty .................................................................... 189 14. Permission of the Superiors .............................. 189 15. Special and General Permission ....................... 189 16. Presumed Permission ......................................... 189 17. Gifts Given to Confreres.................................... 189 18. Donations . .......................................................... 189 19. Juridical Acts...................................................... 190 20. Transfer Restrictions........................................... 190 21. Mutual Aid in the Congregation ........................ 190 22. Sense of Justice and Charity............................... 190 IV. Obedience . ............................................................... 191 23. Formal Command............................................... 191 24. According to the Letter and the Spirit ............... 191 25. Accepting Duties................................................. 191 26. Attitude toward Superiors................................... 192 27. Suggestions Spontaneously Offered ................. 192 28. Recourse ............................................................ 192 29. Positions of Honor not to be Sought ................. 192 30. Acquaintance and Dialogue ............................... 192 31. Manner of Governing ........................................ 193 V. Sources of Spiritual Life ......................................... 193 32. Master of Ceremonies ....................................... 193 33. Suitable Preparation and Thanksgiving ............. 193 34. More Important Feasts ....................................... 194 35. Concelebration ................................................... 194 36. Sacrament of Penance......................................... 194 37. Function of the Confessor ................................. 194 VI. Life of Prayer and Piety........................................... 195 38. Seasonal Devotions............................................. 195 39. Retreats .............................................................. 195 40. Manner of Commutation.................................... 195 41. Private Prayer .................................................... 195 42. Mass and Prayers for the Entire Congregation ...... 196 43. Mass for the Superior General .......................... 196 Directory 20

44. Masses for Parents, Relatives, and Benefactors ........................................................ 196 45. Masses for all the Deceased Confreres and the Faithful.......................................................... 196 46. Place of Burial ................................................... 196 47. Notification of Death; Description of Life ........ 197 48. Prayers and Masses for a Deceased Confrere.......... 197 49. Masses for the Superior General and Provincial Superior ............................................ 197 50. Masses and Prayers for a Postulant and Internal Co-worker ............................................. 197 51. Masses for the Parents of a Confrere ................ 198 52. Mass and Prayers for the Pope and the Ordinary........................................................ 198 53. Prayers for Benefactors ..................................... 198 54. Mass Intentions for Self, Family, and Friends... 198 55. Announcements of Common Devotions............. 198 56. Prayers for Those in Need ................................. 198 VII. Penance and Mortifications ..................................... 199 57. Attire and Living Quarters ................................. 199 PART III COMMON LIFE I. Common Life in General ......................................... 200 58. Contact with Those Living Outside the Community ........................ 200 59. Small Communities ........................................... 200 II. Fraternal Charity and Care of the Sick ................... 200 60. Mutual Love ...................................................... 200 61. Care for One’s Health ....................................... 201 62. Vacations ......................................................... 201 63. Social Assistance................................................ 201 64. Convalescent Homes.......................................... 201 65. Infirmarian.......................................................... 201 66. Complete Care for the Sick................................ 202 67. Patience in Illness............................................... 202 68. Controversies to Be Settled ............................... 202 Table of Contents 21

69. Unpleasantness Borne or Remedied ................. 202 70. Penal Remedies ................................................. 203 71. Prescripts of the Law to Be Observe ..................... 203 III. Guidelines for Safeguarding Discipline and Recollection ...................................................... 203 72. Distribution of Jobs ........................................... 203 73. Daily Order ........................................................ 204 74. Order in Private Rooms...................................... 204 75. Review of the Common Life ............................. 204 76. Account of the Exterior Life............................... 204 77. Stricter Silence ................................................... 205 78. Reading at Table ................................................ 205 79. Cloister and Parlor ............................................. 205 80. Instruments of Communication............................. 205 IV. Dealings with Human Society .................................. 205 81. Decency to Be Observed in All Things .............. 205 82. Evangelical Witness in Travels .......................... 206 PART IV APOSTOLATE I. Character and Elements of the Apostolate ................... 207 83. Planning of Apostolic Works ............................. 207 84. Apostolate in the Eastern Rite ........................... 207 85. Moderation in Undertaking New Duties ................ 207 86. Preparation of the Laity for the Apostolate ....... 207 87. Statutes of the Marian Fathers’ Associations ....... 208 88. Contacts with other Religious ........................... 208 II. Instruction and Education of Youth ......................... 208 III. Use of Instruments of Communication ................... 208 89. Appropriate Use ................................................. 208 90. Preparation of Confreres ................................... 209 91. Ecclesiastical Permission ................................... 209 IV. Exercise of Priestly Ministry .................................... 209 92. Manner of Preaching the Word of God ............. 209 Directory 22

93. Manner of Hearing Confessions......................... 210 94. Promotion of Piety ............................................. 210 95. Double Subordination......................................... 210 96. Material Goods Acquired .................................. 210 97. Donations............................................................ 211 98. Duties of Pastors................................................. 211 V. Ecumenism and Inter-Religious Dialogue .............. 211 VI. Missions.................................................................... 211 PART V FORMATION I. Principles of Formation ............................................ 212 99. External Decorum ............................................ 212 100. Programs of Formation..................................... 212 101. Prefect and Committee of Formation .............. 212 102. Matching of Duties .......................................... 213 103. Assistance of Experts........................................ 213 104. Consulting Physicians and Psychologists......... 213 105. Solicitude of All the Confreres......................... 213 II. Fostering Vocations ................................................. 213 106. Vocation Director ............................................. 213 107. Partnership with Families ................................ 214 108. Youth Associations in Parishes and Schools ... 214 109. Our Own Educational Institutions.................... 214 110. Other Means ..................................................... 214 111. Vocations in Mature Years ............................... 215 III. Admission to the Congregation ............................... 215 112. Inquiries ........................................................... 215 113. Required Qualities ........................................... 215 114. Proof of Maturity ............................................. 216 115. Formation of Postulants.................................... 216 116. Requirements of the Postulants ....................... 216 117. Postulant Director ............................................ 216 118. Duration of Postulancy..................................... 217 119. Place of Postulancy........................................... 217 Table of Contents 23

120. Dismissal of a Postulant .................................. 217 121. Report on a Postulant ...................................... 217 IV. Novitiate .................................................................. 217 122. Retreat Before Novitiate................................... 217 123. Rite and Recording of the Act of Admission .. 218 124. Place of First Profession................................... 218 125. Profession in Danger of Death ......................... 218 126. Retreat Before Vows ....................................... 218 127. Assistant Novice Master .................................. 218 128. Term of Office of the Novice Master .............. 218 129. Duty of the Master ........................................... 218 130. Preparation of the Master ................................ 219 131. Account of Life................................................. 219 132. Novitiate Books ............................................... 219 133. Reports on Novices ......................................... 220 134. Apostolic Exercise ........................................... 220 V. Religious Profession ............................................... 220 135. Required Evaluation ........................................ 220 136. Preparation for Perpetual Vows ....................... 220 137. Rights and Obligations .................................... 221 138. Additions to the Formula of Profession .......... 221 139. Document of Profession .................................. 221 VI. Priestly Formation ................................................... 221 140. Our Own Institutes of Studies ......................... 221 141. Studies in Other Institutes ............................... 222 142. Houses of Studies ............................................ 222 143. Authority to Found and Suppress Houses of Studies ............................................ 222 144. Instructions for Houses of Studies .................. 222 145. Prefect of Students............................................ 222 146. Other Formators................................................ 223 147. Spiritual Director.............................................. 223 148. Report on Students .......................................... 223 149. Vigilance of Major Superiors........................... 223 150. Completing Intermediate (Secondary) Schooling... 224 151. Pastoral Formation ........................................... 224 Directory 24

152. Apostolic Exercises.......................................... 224 153. Diaconal Ministry ............................................ 224 154. Permanent Deacons ......................................... 225 155. Pastoral Year .................................................... 225 156. Studies and Religious Life .............................. 225 157. Common Life and Discipline .......................... 225 158. Suitable Freedom.............................................. 225 VII. Formation of Religious Brothers.............................. 226 159. Post-Novitiate Formation ................................ 226 160. Director of Religious Brothers ........................ 226 VIII.Ongoing Formation ................................................. 226 161. Monthly Meetings ........................................... 226 162. Duty of the Prefect of Formation ................... 227 163. Libraries and Museums ................................... 227 PART VI STRUCTURE AND GOVERNMENT I. Relation with Ecclesiastical Authority .................... 228 164. Decrees of the Holy See .................................. 228 165. Pastoral Ministry............................................... 228 II. Structure of the Congregation ................................. 228 166. Vice-Province .................................................. 228 167. Residence.......................................................... 229 III. Superiors................................................................... 229 168. Monitor ............................................................ 229 169. Superiors’ Age Limit ....................................... 229 170. Local Superior ................................................. 229 171. Criteria of Election .......................................... 229 172. Duty, Presence, and Concern ........................... 230 173. Remaining in Office ........................................ 230 174. Limitation of Continuity in Office .................. 230 175. Appointing a Visitator....................................... 230 176. Visitator’s Questions......................................... 231 177. Visitation Protocol............................................ 231 178. Assistance of the Provincial Superior............... 231 Table of Contents 25

179. Initiative and Obedience................................... 231 180. Example of Life................................................ 231 181. Principles and Goals for Superiors................... 232 182. Use of the Seal.................................................. 233 IV. Council and Councilors ........................................... 233 183. Presence of Councilors .................................... 233 184. Validity of Decisions ....................................... 233 185. Elections or Appointments............................... 234 186. Consulting Experts .......................................... 234 187. Council Meetings ............................................. 234 188. Manner of Proceeding ..................................... 234 189. Necessary Information .................................... 234 190. Council Minutes .............................................. 235 191. Promulgation of the Acts and Need for Discretion ......................................... 235 192. Vacancy in the Office of the General or Provincial Superior ...................................... 235 193. Concern for the Common Good ...................... 235 194. Collaboration with the Superior ...................... 236 195. Substitute for a Superior .................................. 236 196. Dependence upon the Superior ........................ 236 V. Secretaries and Archives ......................................... 237 197. Appointment of the Secretary........................... 237 198. Duties of the Secretary .................................... 237 199. Keeping Secret ................................................ 238 200. Preservation of Document................................ 238 201. Writings to Be Kept Secret .............................. 239 202. Catalogue of Documents ................................. 239 203. Copies .............................................................. 239 204. Archivist ........................................................... 239 205. Submission of Publications ............................. 240 VI. Elections .................................................................. 240 206. Right to Vote in the Province .......................... 240 207. Loss of Voice ................................................... 240 208. Convocation ..................................................... 241 209. Ballot of the Sick ............................................. 241 Directory 26

210. Only One Vote ................................................. 241 211. No Outsider ..................................................... 241 212. Requirements for a Valid Vote ......................... 241 213. Postulation ....................................................... 242 214. Duties of Tellers ............................................... 242 215. Null and Void Ballot......................................... 242 216. Verification of Ballots....................................... 243 217. Voting Result ................................................... 243 218. Proclamation of the Election ........................... 243 VII. General Chapter........................................................ 244 219. Preparation ...................................................... 244 220. Manner of Convocation ................................... 244 221. Date of the Ordinary Chapter. ......................... 244 222. Manner of Celebration ..................................... 244 223. Additional Delegates ....................................... 245 224. Other Delegates ............................................... 245 225. Presence of Participants.................................... 245 226. Presence of Experts ......................................... 245 227. Spiritual Exercises ........................................... 246 228. Roll Call ........................................................... 246 229. Tellers and Secretary of the Chapter ............... 246 230. Duty of the Secretary........................................ 246 231. Various Committees ......................................... 246 232. Election of Committees and Their Officials .................................................. 247 233. Significant Matters ........................................... 247 234. Presentation of the Proposals in a Plenary Session ......................................... 247 235. Manner of Deliberation ................................... 248 236. Prior Deliberations............................................ 248 237. Preparation for Elections ................................. 248 238. Oath of the Electors.......................................... 248 239. Promulgation of the Election ........................... 249 240. Elected to Be Summoned ................................ 249 241. Minutes and Closing of the Chapter ................ 249 242. Promulgation and Editorial Changes to the Resolutions ................................................ 249 243. Obligatory Force of the Chapter Resolutions .... 249 Table of Contents 27

VIII.Provincial Chapter ................................................... 250 244. Rules to Be Observed ...................................... 250 245. Matters to Be Treated at the Chapter .............. 250 246. Acts of the Chapter .......................................... 250 IX. Local Chapter .......................................................... 251 247. Houses to Be Joined........................................ 251 248. Elections of Delegates Outside the Chapter...... 251 249. Proposals for the Provincial Chapter .............. 251 250. Second Session of the Local Chapter.............. 252 X. Conventions ............................................................ 252 251. Participants of a General Convention ............. 252 252. Participants of a Provincial Convention ......... 252 XI. General Government .............................................. 252 253. Service for the Good of the Congregation ..... 252 254. Changes in the General Council .................... 253 255. Procurator General ......................................... 253 256. Appointment of a Procurator ......................... 253 257. Dependence on the Superior General ............. 253 258. General Treasurer ........................................... 253 259. Postulator General; Vice-Postulators............... 254 260. Appointment of the Postulator and Vice-Postulators .............................................. 254 XII. Provincial Government . ......................................... 254 261. General Consultative Vote for the Provincial Superior .................................... 254 262. Opening of Ballots ............................................ 254 263. Election by the Chapter...................................... 254 264. Loss of Office by a Provincial Superior .......... 255 265. Loss of Office by a Provincial Councilor ........ 255 266. Changes or Substitutions after Vacancies ............................................................ 255 XIII.Local Government .................................................. 256 267. Expanded Council .......................................... 256 268. Example of the Superior.................................. 256 Directory 28

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